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Caffeic Acid

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Caffeic Acid
What is Caffeic Acid:
Synonyms: 3,4-Dihydroxycinnamic acid; 2-Propenoic acid, 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl); 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacrylic acid;3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid;4-(2',Carboxyvinyl)-1,2-dihydroxybenzene
Molecular formula: C9H8O4
Molecular weight: 180.16
CAS No.: 331-39-5
Melt Point: 194-198°C
Solubility: Soluble in water. (> 0.65 ug/ml at 25.0 C)
Appearance: Solid
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Caffeic acid and its derivative caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) are produced in many plants including: pears, basil, thyme, verbena, tarragon, oregano, wood betony, burning bush, turmeric, dandelion, yarrow, horsetail, rosemary, hawthorn and coffee.
The amount of caffeic acid is strongly dependent on the plant species.
Both caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid have been shown to be absorbed in humans. Caffeic acid absorption is hampered when it is esterified with quinic acid to form chlorogenic acid.
In laboratory experiments, colonies of a nut tree mould were grown on extracts of walnut and pistachio. Next, fungal colonies were exposed to three compounds thought to be antioxidants: gallic acid, which has aflatoxin-combating impacts in walnuts, and chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid.
Caffeic acid outperformed the other antioxidants, reducing aflatoxin production by more than 95 percent. The studies are the first to show that oxidative stress that would otherwise trigger or enhance Aspergillus flavus aflatoxin production can be stymied by caffeic acid.
This opens the door to using natural anti-fungicide methods by supplementing trees with antioxidants.
Beneficial Uses
Oral administration of high doses of caffeic acid in rats has caused stomach papillomas, leading to the perception of caffeic acid as carcinogenic. In the same study, only high doses of combined antioxidants, including caffeic acid, showed a significant decrease in growth of colon tumors in those same rats. No significant effect was noted otherwise.
Caffeic Acid is still listed under older Hazard Data sheets [8] as a potential carcinogen because of two early experiments on rats and mice.
More recent data show that bacteria in the rats' guts may alter the formation of metabolites of Caffeic Acid. There have been no known ill-effects of Caffeic Acid in humans.
Caffeic Acid and its derivative,

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